Glutathione (GSH), known as the “King of Antioxidants”, is one of the important antioxidants in mammalian, plant, and microbial cells and an important medical and health product used in clinical practice for liver protection, tumor treatment, oxygen toxicity relief, anti-aging, and endocrine disorders. Its effects are obvious and non-toxic, and it has a wide market in medical and health product processing fields.
Glutathione (GSH) was first isolated from yeast in 1888 and artificially synthesized GSH appeared in 1935. Glutathione can eliminate free radicals produced within cells, thereby reducing cell membrane damage caused by the formation of reactive oxygen species through lipid peroxidation.
Glutathione (GSH); Yeast fermentation method; Peptide separation and purification
Existence Form of Glutathione (GSH)
GSH exists in all biological cells, with a higher content in animal tissues and a lower content in plant tissues. In nature, GSH is mainly present in yeast, grain seed germ, human and animal hearts, liver, kidneys, muscles, eyeballs, and red blood cells.
Glutathione is composed of three amino acids: glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine, and is divided into two forms: reduced (G-SH) and oxidized (G-S-S-G). Under physiological conditions, reduced glutathione accounts for the majority. Glutathione reductase can catalyze tautomerism between two types.
Reduced Glutathione Structural Formula:
The Physiological Function of Glutathione
The physiological functions of glutathione are mainly manifested in 6 aspects:
1. Maintain the integrity of the red blood cell membrane.
2. It has the function of protecting and restoring activity for enzymes that require thiol groups.
3. Glutathione is a cogroup and coenzyme of various enzymes.
4. Participate in the absorption and transport of amino acids.
5. Participate in the reduction of methemoglobin and promote iron absorption.
6. Remove harmful toxins and metabolites from the body.
The Biological Activity Function of Glutathione (GSH)
GSH can protect the sulfur group of proteins in living organisms and maintain their normal biological activity. At the same time, it is a coenzyme and co group of various enzymes, and has strong affinity. It can bind to various chemicals and their metabolites. Therefore, GSH has multiple biological functions, not only clearing oxygen ions and other free radicals in the body, but also protecting liver cell membrane, promoting liver enzyme activity, antioxidant It has functions such as detoxification and maintaining the integrity of red blood cell membranes, as well as various physiological functions such as maintaining DNA biosynthesis, normal cell growth, and cell immunity.
Preparation Method of Glutathione (GSH)
There are 4 main methods for preparing GSH: direct extraction, chemical peptide synthesis which refer to the Omizzur lab, fermentation, and enzyme conversion. Among them, fermentation is the most promising method for producing GSH. The earliest patent for preparing GSH from yeast originated in 1938 and has been continuously improved and improved for decades.
At present, fermentation has become the main method for producing GSH. Japan has been researching the production of GSH through fermentation for a long time, and yeast fermentation has been successfully used in the industrial production of GSH in Japan.
Application of Glutathione
Glutathione is a very important peptide with broad application prospects. As a reagent, glutathione is widely used in research and determination in biochemistry, medicine, biology, and chemistry.
1. Clinical Drugs
Glutathione drugs are widely used in clinical practice. In addition to using their thiol groups to chelate heavy metals, fluoride, mustard gas and other toxins for poisoning, they are also used as therapeutic or adjuvant drugs for hepatitis, hemolytic diseases, as well as keratitis, cataracts, and retinal diseases. In recent years, scientists, especially Japanese scholars, have found that glutathione has the function of inhibiting HIV.
The latest research also shows that GSH can correct the imbalance of acetylcholine and cholinesterase, play an anti allergic role, prevent skin aging and pigmentation, reduce melanin formation, improve skin antioxidant capacity, and make the skin shiny. In addition, GSH has a good effect in treating eye corner membrane disease and improving sexual function. More reference for cosmetic peptides here: BulkTan Peptide
2. Antioxidant Effect
Glutathione, as an important antioxidant in the body, can eliminate free radicals in the body; Due to its susceptibility to oxidation by certain substances, GSH can protect the thiol groups in many proteins and enzymes in the body from being oxidized by harmful substances, thus ensuring the normal physiological function of proteins and enzymes; There is a high content of glutathione in human red blood cells, which is of great significance in protecting the thiol groups of proteins on the red blood cell membrane from being reduced and preventing hemolysis.
3. Food Additives
Adding glutathione to food can have unexpected effects:
1. Adding it to flour products can have a reducing effect. Not only does it shorten the time for making bread by half or one-third of the original, greatly improving labor conditions, but it also plays a role in enhancing food nutrition and other functions.
2. Adding it to yogurt and infant food is equivalent to vitamin C and can serve as a stabilizer.
3. Mixing it into the fish cake can prevent the color from deepening.
4. Added to food products such as meat and cheese, it has the effect of enhancing flavor.
Market Status and Development Prospects of Glutathione
With the deepening of research on the physiological and biochemical aspects of GSH, CSH is attracting increasing attention in fields such as medicine, food, health care, and anti-aging. GSH is an important medical and health product, which is widely used in the medical and health product processing industry due to its significant and non-toxic effects in clinical applications such as liver protection, tumor healing, detoxification, anti-aging, and treatment of endocrine disorders.
With the improvement of people’s living standards, people’s awareness of quality of life and their awareness of physical health are increasing. As a bioactive substance, CSH has also entered the healthcare industry, and as a health antioxidant, its application in the food industry is becoming increasingly widespread.